Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Loss of Privacy Will Be a Major Consequence of the...

CIS 300 Gabriel Cruz Report #4 The loss of privacy will be a major consequence of the computer revolution The term of â€Å"Computer Revolution† refers to the tremendous change computers have had in Society because of its tremendous development in the last decade. This so called Revolution had facilitated the way we live in the last couple of years. The computers of today make life a lot easier than it was before, you can do anything with a computer on this days, from making an online purchase of any kind of product, chatting with any person doesn’t matter the location you are, or checking your monthly bank statements. However the Revolution also gave some other consequences rather than positive like the â€Å"Loss of Privacy†. The Loss of†¦show more content†¦In Mexico city there have been several cases in relation to Kidnapping where the Social Network play a big influence in the Kidnaper s source. Jim Willies a former reporter for The Oklahoman wrote an article about an 18 year old boy that committed suicide because of his loss of privacy in the internet. Tyler Clementi jumped to his death off the George Washington Bridge shortly afterwards. Two students stand accused of secretly webcasting the sexual encounter involving Clementi and another man (Jim, 2010). The Loss of Privacy is an issue that had lead to a lot of complicated and awkward situations, but also can lead to some positive consequences. Sometimes people don’t remember important information about them, and thanks to the Computer Databases of any kind of organization this person is related to, they can get any kind of personal information stored in those databases at any time. The Health Insurance companies, Car insurance, Bank accounts. Any of this types of Organizations are very helpful when a person doesn’t remember or is disoriented about some personal information they need to have knowledge about. Loss of privacy half of the time happens because people are not careful with the inf ormation they provide and to who they provide it. It is very easy to make any kind of purchase in the internet. Some people don’t even pay attention to who are they givingShow MoreRelatedHow Technology Is Inevitable?1141 Words   |  5 Pagesdaily basis is not a surprising bit of information. And, for most of us, neither is the â€Å"anxiety about ubiquitous surveillance† (Hunt) that accompanies it. We have our privacy invaded nearly every single day, ranging from having our telephone conversations tapped into to being constantly watched by every surveillance camera in a major retail store. One of the newest wonders in technology is the Google Glass—an interesting pair of eyeglasses that allows its wearer to check social media websites on aRead MoreStronger Internet Privacy Laws Are Unnecessary3382 Words   |  14 PagesStronger Internet Privacy Laws Are Unnecessary The Internet, 2005 As you read, consider the following questions: 1. What company was sued because its Web site s advertisement placed cookies on the computers of people visiting the site? 2. In what European country was a privacy-protection law used to curtail free speech, according to Mishkin? The right to privacy has been around since the early part of the last century. It has evolved to apply—more or less—to a disparate array of socialRead More Computer Crime Essay1989 Words   |  8 PagesThe introduction of computers in to the modern household has brought with it new moral issues. In the last 10 years computers have become increasingly cheaper to buy, due to huge technological advances and fierce competition, driving prices down. It the wake of the computer revolution the internet has followed quickly, becoming faster, cheaper and more accessible. With these technological advances the world has become increasingly smaller enabling piracy and file sharing to become common practiceRead MoreAll Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace by Richard Brautigan1229 Words   |  5 PagesAll Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace by Richard Brautigan Man is still the most extraordinary computer of all. John F. Kennedy, May 21, 1963 (676) In his poem All Watched Over By Machines of Loving Grace, published in 1968, Richard Brautigan places the reader in a future realm: a sparkling utopia where mammals and computers live together in mutually programming harmony (1). He draws us in by juxtaposing images of nature, man and machine that challenge us to imagine this newRead More From Hacking to Cyber Terrorism Essay3963 Words   |  16 Pagesadvanced and convenient life to the society. But, over the time we are also observing explosive growth in the darker side of the IT - regarding hacking and cyber crimes. Activities like unauthorized computer intrusion, denial of service (DOS), stealing computer passwords and secure data; causing damage to computer systems and databases and causing damage to individuals/society are not very rare these days. As we go further on this paper, we will see different aspects of hacking, from harmless (simplyRead MoreOutsourcing: Staying Competitive In The Global Market Essays1719 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract As more companies expand their business globally, they are seeing more opportunities and an increased set of threats to the market. Threats like war, political revolutions, new currencies, and natural disasters can affect growth and political stability throughout the world, so in order to successfully compete in the international market more companies are faced with the decision of relocating part of their operation offshore. This paper will address what key elements companies in this situationRead MoreSociology and Modernization1870 Words   |  8 Pagesindustrial revolution, urbanization and other social changes that alters peoples lives. Modernization promotes individualism over the unity of traditional communities and encourages rationality over traditional philosophies. Modernization can have both positive and negative effects on society and can often bring about controversy. The German sociologist Ferdinand Tà ¶nnies (1855-1937) formed the theory of Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft. Ferdinand Tà ¶nnies saw modernization as the progressive loss of humanRead MoreLegal Ethical Issues for It Practitioners2523 Words   |  11 Pagesempowerment of all its citizens through access and use of information and knowledge. Every person and every nation must have equal opportunity to benefit from cultural diversity and scientific progress as a basic human right in the current information revolution and the emerging knowledge society† (Gordon Sork, 2001). The code of ethics that IT practitioners generally follow consists of general moral imperatives, specific IT practitioner responsibilities, organizational leadership imperatives andRead MoreEssay on Privacy Infringements through the Internet2173 Words   |  9 PagesToday in society, people are expected to be able to protect their own privacy, but the very definition of privacy states that it is in no way completely attainable, nor will it ever be. And why would people want that when it has been proven that to achieve absolute privacy would mean to forfeit a place in society (Nehf)? But in recent years, privacy infringements through the Internet have gotten out of hand. Until privacy becomes a principal concern for Internet users, they remain unsafe, easyRead MoreAnnotated Bibliography: Issue of IT Ethics2194 Words   |  9 Pagesthe challenges and the long term effects they are having on stakeholders. Spinello, R. A. (2011). Cyber Ethics - Morality and Law in Cyberspace. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning. In chapters 5 and 6; Spinello (2011) found that privacy is becoming a major challenge for all different segments of society. This is occurring in a number of different areas including: consumer spending / buying patterns, inside the home / workplace and the way this technology is applied. Moreover, there is a discussion

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Declining Educational Standards In Karachi Pakistan Education Essay Free Essays

string(70) " a cardinal factor in any instruction system, is hapless in Pakistan\." The cause of this probe was to place the chief grounds which decline the educational criterions at secondary degree in Karachi, Pakistan. The population of the survey was both â€Å" authorities and private † schools pupils and instructors. The positions of male and female pupils and instructors were sought out. We will write a custom essay sample on Declining Educational Standards In Karachi Pakistan Education Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now Majority of the respondents had the position that the bing uneffective course of study and rating system are the chief grounds of worsening educational criterions at secondary degree in Karachi, Pakistan. Many of the respondents stated that imperfect disposal along with bad review system became its grounds. Short figure of respondent opinioned that improper wellness installations, deficiency of co-curricular activities and outmoded learning methods caused the sub standard instruction. Introduction The instruction is going one of the specifying endeavors of the twenty-first century with the outgrowth of globalisation and increasing planetary competition. Pakistan is determined to react positively to emerging demands, chances and challenges of globalisation. Education is being considered a cardinal to alter and come on. Advancement and prosperity of the state depends on the sort of instruction that is provided to the people. This survey was designed to explicate and foreground the criterions of instruction at secondary degree in Karachi. Educational criterions present standards by which judgements can be made by province and local school forces and communities, assisting them to make up one’s mind which course of study, Torahs of disposal, wellness plan, staff development activity and assessment plan is appropriate. Educational criterions promote policies that will convey coordination, consistence, and coherency to the betterment of the procedure of instruction. They allo w everyone to travel in the same way, with the confidence that the hazards they take in the name of bettering instruction will be supported by policies and patterns throughout the system. Performance criterions describe what degree of public presentation is good plenty for pupils to be described as advanced, proficient, below basic, or by some other public presentation degree. Normally educational criterion stands for quality of instruction. Quality has been the end of an ageless pursuit through the corridors of human history. It has been the divining force of all human enterprises. Educational criterions of Pakistan have been a burning issue among the educationists since independency. Every member of the society has its ain positions concern the educational criterions in Pakistan. Although, every authorities tried its best to raise the criterions of instruction but their attempts were chiefly limited to fixing merely educational policies in documents. We could non happen practical execution of their recommendations sing criterions of instruction in Pakistan. In the more huge sense a criterion is any thing used to mensurate, for illustration a criterion of behavior, a criterion of weight or length. Actually a criterion is a thing which has been used as a theoretical account to which objects or actions may be compared. The criterion of instruction is define d in Encyclopedia of Education ( 1985 ) in the undermentioned sense: â€Å" In the instruction context, so, criterions should be regarded as aims to be achieved or outlooks of desirable attitude or degrees of public presentation † .[ 1 ] Research Questions: Why the Karachi Secondary instruction declined? What the grounds behind the worsening criterion of secondary instruction in Karachi? What are the solution which can raise the criterion of secondary instruction in Karachi? Aims of the survey ( I ) To specify the existent significance of educational criterions. ( two ) To analyse the positions and sentiment of pupils and instructors about-the chief grounds of worsening educational criterions at secondary degree in Karachi. ( three ) To give suggestions and recommendation for bettering the educational criterions at secondary degree. Methodology: This survey depended on quantitative Secondary research, we analysing the information which is already available in records. The intent is to determine the overall public presentation of the authorities and private secondary schools sing standard instruction provided by them. Consequences: The collected information was converted into tabular arraies. Findingss and decisions were drawn in the visible radiation of these tabular arraies by the research workers. Table 1. The thoughts and positions of authorities secondary schools male and female pupils sing the chief grounds of worsening educational criterions at secondary degree in Karachi[ 2 ]. S.No Description Male ( Agree ) ( % ) Male ( Disagree ) ( % ) Female ( Agree ) ( % ) Female ( Disagree ) ( % ) 1 Defective disposal 70 30 90 10 2 Inflexible course of study 80 20 80 20 3 Ineffective rating system 65 35 60 40 4 Imperfect review system 70 30 55 45 5 Improper wellness installations 45 55 55 45 6 Lack of co-curricular activities 55 45 45 55 7 Outdated instruction methods 95 05 90 10 8 Inaccessibility of scholarships 45 55 30 70 Table 2[ 3 ]. Private secondary schools studentaˆYs positions about the causes of low standard instruction at secondary degree in Karachi were highlighted. S.No Description Male ( Agree ) ( % ) Male ( Disagree ) ( % ) Female ( Agree ) ( % ) Female ( Disagree ) ( % ) 1 Defective disposal 60 40 70 30 2 Inflexible course of study 65 35 85 15 3 Ineffective rating system 75 25 70 30 4 Imperfect review system 65 35 90 10 5 Improper wellness installations 40 60 50 50 6 Lack of co-curricular activities 30 70 45 55 7 Outdated instruction methods 95 05 95 05 8 Inaccessibility of scholarships 45 55 35 65 Table 3.[ 4 ]The positions of instructors belonging to authorities secondary schools about the chief grounds of worsening criterion of instruction at secondary degree in Karachi are stated. S.No Description Male ( Agree ) ( % ) Male ( Disagree ) ( % ) Female ( Agree ) ( % ) Female ( Disagree ) ( % ) 1 Defective disposal 60 40 40 60 2 Inflexible course of study 80 20 80 20 3 Ineffective rating system 60 40 40 60 4 Imperfect review system 80 20 60 40 5 Improper wellness installations 40 60 60 40 6 Lack of co-curricular activities 40 60 40 60 7 Outdated instruction methods 60 40 60 40 8 Inaccessibility of scholarships 40 60 20 80 The Role and Appointment of Teachers The quality of instructors, which is a cardinal factor in any instruction system, is hapless in Pakistan. You read "Declining Educational Standards In Karachi Pakistan Education Essay" in category "Essay examples" The chief ground is the low degree of educational makings required to go a primary school instructor ; which includes ten old ages of schooling and an eleven-month certification plan. It has been established through assorted surveies that pupil accomplishment is closely related to the figure of old ages of formal schooling of instructors. Therefore, pupils of instructors with 12 old ages of schooling perform better than pupils of matriculate ( 10 old ages instruction ) instructors, who in bend perform better than pupils of instructors with merely grade eightqualifications. The 2nd factor relates to the quality of instructor enfranchisement plans, which suffersfrom the deficiency of adequately trained maestro trainers, small accent on learning pattern and non-existence of a proper support/monitoring system for instructors. In the absence of any commissioned organic structure to attest instructors, the mere acquisition of a certificate/diploma is considered sufficient to use for a teaching place. In add-on, teacher assignment in schools is capable to interference from local involvement groups seeking to topographic point instructors of their pick within their constituency. This has opened the system to graft and lease seeking taking to high degrees of instructor absenteeism accentuated by the absence of an effectual supervising system. The assignment of instructors particularly in primary schools is capable to the political influence or paying immense money. Training for Government Teachers[ 5 ] The disposal of teacher preparation in Pakistan is a provincial duty. However, the course of study wing at the federal degree is besides responsible for teacher instruction institutions.Government primary school instructors are trained through Government Colleges for Elementary Teachers ( GCETs ) , the distance instruction plan of the Allama Iqbal Open University ( AIOU ) , and teacher preparation classs run in secondary schools known as Normal Schools or PTC units. Alumnuss of these establishments are taught a similar course of study, and receive the Primary Teaching Certificate ( PTC ) or Certificate in Teaching ( CT ) at the terminal of one twelvemonth. Generally, the figure of appliers is far greater than the figure of topographic points available. There is besides an acute deficit of instructor preparation installations, peculiarly for female instructors in certain parts and particularly in the state of Balochistan. Private School Teachers The quality of instruction imparted by the bulk of private schools is questionable owing to an acute famine of decently trained and qualified instructors, and any sort of support mechanism for these instructors. Except for big school systems like Beaconhouse, City, Lahore Grammar, and others, which constitute a little per centum of the bing private schools the bulk of others have appointed instructors who are qualified up to intercede ( 12 old ages of schooling ) or BA degree ( 14 old ages of instruction ) , and are paid much lower wages compared to their opposite numbers in the authorities sector in add-on to no occupation security. The big schools and school systems have instituted their ain instructor preparation plans or entree specialised private establishments. There is less disposition in these schools to engaging instructors who have antecedently been trained by authorities establishments and hold grades in B. Ed or M. Ed ; their penchant is for those fluid in English linguis tic communication. Therefore, really few instructors hired by the private schools have had any pre-service preparation. Thereis a felt demand to heighten the professional accomplishments of those who are presently working through assorted inset plans. Discussion Education is a powerful tool and cardinal force in the life of adult male. Deepak ( 2006 ) stated that instruction plays an instructional function in determining the fate of the person and the hereafter of world. SEAMEO-Jasper Research Award ( 2009 ) further clears that instruction provides chances to get cognition and competences to work in a planetary environment. The end of constructing a cohesive, just and harmonious community, bound together in solidarity for deeper apprehension and cooperation, presents new challenges for bookmans and instruction practicians in geting new constructs and advanced theoretical accounts for effectual instruction and acquisition. The criterion of instruction is direct effect and result of the quality of instructors and learning methods used by them. Society believes that competent, effectual instructors are of import keys to a strong system of instruction. Consequently, instructors are expected to be adept in the usage of instructional engineerings and category room direction techniques. They are besides expected to hold a thorough apprehension of the developmental degrees of their pupils and a societal group of the content they teach. To keep and widen this high degree of accomplishments, instructors are expected to be informed of model patterns and to show a devise for professional development. Teacher competence and effectivity includes the duty to assist all scholars win. Sing criterions Seth ( 1970 ) stated that we have provided more and more money to more and more of that we may be making ill. We hope that we could make it better. Educationists of international differentiation have suggested that it will be possible merely by developing suited course of study and using educational engineerings to do the course of study more effectual and the school more efficient. Jalala ( 2004 ) said that on the footing of wide aims, course of study planning should be done and suited capable content, behavioural results and other acquis ition experiences be put in for doing curriculum comprehensive. It should be based on the findings of course of study research and be enriched by interdisciplinary coaction among experts on different topics. All this would lend to the design of a entire school course of study that is complementary every bit good as comprehensive. In Pakistan quality instruction has marked a clear line of favoritism on fiscal evidences, and more well, it is beyond the range of many pupils. Muhammad ( 2009 ) declared that the saddening and deteriorating status of educational system in the state raises many fingers on instruction section, whose representatives, so confidently, sing vocals of success in every of their visual aspect. There is no answerability of the typical landlord civilization, which is traveling on in bulk of the countryaˆYs establishments. If authorities purposes to make the sky of standard instruction and to supply it at doorsill of every Pakistani, it should maintain its eyes u nfastened, as the written records and work in advancement in the edifices named schools, are non in any convincing or absorbing place. Particularly for the betterment of criterion at secondary degree instruction sufficient stairss should be taken, because secondary instruction is linking nexus between primary and high instruction as Srivastara ( 2005 ) stated that secondary instruction is frequently considered as the most of import section of the single acquisition. Harmonizing to Water and McFadden ( 2003 ) secondary school is a topographic point where much complex interaction takes topographic point that has a important impact on the individuality formation of immature people and the consequent success in big life. Education is the basic right of every person in the society but unluckily, educational criterions in Pakistan are worsening fastly. One of the most of import factors in criterions of instruction is good rating system. Evaluation plays a great function in the accomplishments and acquisition of single. Particularly it can be helpful for instructors to analyse as Lal ( 2005 ) stated that rating help the instructors to better his schoolroom processs and methods of learning in the visible radiation of provender back. Unfortunately in Pakistan imperfect rating system besides devalue the criterions of instruction in schools. Recommendation ( I ) The course of study of secondary degree should be improved harmonizing to the demands of clip and wants of the society. ( two ) Introduce high quality choice process for secondary degree instructors and offer the campaigners better inducements. ( three ) The disposal of school should be effectual and efficient. It should maintain democratic attack. ( four ) The rating system at secondary degree should be organized and modern techniques must be used to measure the abilities of a kid. ( V ) There should non be political intervention in educational establishments. ( six ) All secondary authorities and private schools should be allocated with proper wellness installations ( neat and clean and harmonizing to the wellness rules nutrient and handiness of physician or a nurse in the schools ) . ( seven ) The lone trained instructors should be appointed in schools. ( eight ) The secondary school instructors should utilize modern learning methods harmonizing to the age and psychological demands of pupils. ( nine ) There should be chances provided to the pupils for take parting in different co-curricular activities. ( ten ) The procedure of review should be done in proper and democratic manner and the construct of favours should be out of this procedure. ( eleven ) The scholarships should be provided to meriting and intelligent pupils at secondary degree in schools. ( twelve ) Various squads of experts should be involved in executing the above mentioned undertaking of betterment and formation. Decision After analysing the consequences it can be easy concluded that uneffective disposal, non flexible course of study and outdated learning methods used by instructors are the chief grounds of worsening educational criterions at secondary degree. We may state that to some extent the imperfect rating system and bad review involved in this impairment. Improper wellness installations, political intervention, missing of co-curricular activities, non handiness of scholarships are besides some of the factors which destroy criterions of instruction at secondary degree in Karachi. REFFERNCES Spaulding S ( 1970 ) . The record is so impressive, UNESCO Department Publications. Jalala KC ( 2004 ) . Rao Digmarti, Methods of Teaching Educational Technology, Discovery Publishing House. Tiwari D ( 2006 ) . Methods of Teaching Education, Crescent Publishing Corporation. International Encyclopedia of Education, Ref. LB 1569, 1985, 10 Volumes. SEAMEO-Jasper Research Award ( 2009 ) . Annual Report. Subject: â€Å" TeachersaˆY Professional Development in Southeast Asia † . Jalalzai MK ( 2005 ) . The Crisis of Education in Pakistan, State Policies and Textbooks, Al-Abbas international Publications Lahore. Mukhopadhyay M ( 2005 ) . Entire Quality Management in Education, Sage-Publications. JavaScript ( narrative print ) ( 2004 ) . Published on 21st September, Available at World Wide Web. Edweek. Org/rc/issues/standards. Accessed 05 -08-2009. Aslam P ( 2005 ) . Policies and Policy Formation, National Foundation, Lahore. Srivastara DS ( 2005 ) Secondary Education, Mehra Offset Press. Lal JP ( 2005 ) Educational Measurement and Evaluation, Anmol Publications PVT LTD. How to cite Declining Educational Standards In Karachi Pakistan Education Essay, Essay examples

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Importance Of Giving Appropriate Credit To Others †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Importance Of Giving Appropriate Credit To Others When Writing Up Ones Own Work. Answer: During preparation of a research or any other document, one may need to check and extract information from some others work. However, it is required to acknowledge the source of the information or it will be considered as plagiarism. Plagiarism is defined as using some others work without acknowledgement as ones own word. Plagiarism is a criminal offense that can lead to serious consequences that can lead to law suits, penalties or even jail time. Academic institutions like colleges and universities around the world have taken several steps to stop such crime. These steps include cancellation of the examination paper, deduction of marks or even expulsion of the student from the university. Academic honesty is a principal part of learning and instructing and a center estimation of various universities all around the globe. The universities take the view that all academic dishonesty is inadmissible and this arrangement plans to maintain the gauges of morals and trustworthiness encapsul ated in the understudy sanctions and expected of all students. The universities expect to deliver graduates with solid moral establishments equipped for applying the standards of scholarly honesty at universities and past in their expert and individual lives. The universities mean to show students the standards of academic honesty and give the aptitudes and assets required for fruitful learning. Academic dishonesty undermines the universities' center esteems and the learning knowledge ( 2017). However, before exploring the act of plagiarism, it needs to be known the importance of acknowledging ones work with proper credits. When one particular individual or researcher publishes a particular work, it requires him to conduct extensive research through long period of time (months, years or even decades). Hence, he deserves his credit for all the work he has done throughout the research period. However, if someone uses his work and presents it as his own, that will not on ly be injustice to the researcher but also a significant crime. One individual is definitely allowed use the help of the work of other researchers during his own research and he may even quote that reference literature in his work. However, it is important that he must acknowledge the writer of the literature by using suitable references and in-text citations. He can also prepare a separate paragraph in the beginning of the paper to acknowledge all the literature writers from which he has taken help from. Moreover, he also needs to write the theories or research data in his words rather than the ones used by the original writer. Before publishing the paper, the individual must ensure suitable acknowledgements and credits have been given to the original researcher ( 2017). This is also applicable in the professional field where some people use someone elses ideas and use it as their own for their personal gain like promotion. This is simply not acceptable as this will hamper t he professional progress of the individual with the original idea. Hence, it is important to give appropriate credit to others when writing up ones own work. References (2017).University Policies | Academic Honesty Policy. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Aug. 2017]. (2017).Ethical Guidelines. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Aug. 2017].

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

History Of The Internet Essays (1102 words) - Internet Protocols

History Of The Internet A Brief History Of The Internet By default, any definitive history of the Internet must be short, since the Internet (in one form or another) has only been in existence for less than 30 years. The first iteration of the Internet was launched in 1971 with a public showing in early 1972. This first network, known as ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency NETwork) was very primitive by today's standards, but a milestone in computer communications. ARPANET was based upon the design concepts of Larry Roberts (MIT) and was fleshed out at the first ACM symposium, held in Gaithersburg, TN in 1966, although RFPs weren't sent out until mid 1968. The Department of Defense in 1969 commissioned ARPANET, and the first node was created at the University of California in Los Angeles, running on a Honeywell DDP-516 mini-computer. The second node was established at Stanford University and launched on October first of the same year. On November 1, 1969, the third node was located at the University of California, Santa Barbara and the fourth was opened at the University of Utah in December. By 1971 15 nodes were linked including BBN, CMU, CWRU, Harvard, Lincoln Lab, MIT, NASA/Ames, RAND, SDC, SRI and UIU(C). In that same year, Larry Roberts created the first email management program. As a side note, Ray Tomlinson is the person who established the @ sign as a domain/host designator from his Model 33 Teletype. The first international connection to ARPANET is established when the University College of London is connected in 1973, and RFC-454 File Transfer Protocol was published. 1973 was also the year that Dr. Robert Metcalf's doctoral thesis outlined the specifications for Ethernet. The theory was tested on Xerox PARCs computers. 1974 saw the launch of TELNET public packet data service. UUCP (Unix-to-Unix Copy Protocol) was developed at AT&T Bell Labs in 1976, and distributed with UNIX the following year. 1978 saw the split of TCP into TCP and IP. In 1979 the first MUD (Multi-User Domain) was created by Dr. Ri chard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw from the University of Essex, and was the foundation for multi-player games (among other things). This event marked the gradual decline of productivity over the Internet. In 1981 a cooperative network between CUNY (City University of New York) and Yale was established. This network was called BITNET (Because It's There NETwork) and was designed to provide electronic mail transfer and list serve services between the two institutions. RFC-801 NCP/TCP Transition Plan was published that same year. It was because of the growing interconnectivity of new networks that the phrase Internet was coined in 1982, and the Department of Defense also declared TCP/IP to be its defacto standard. The first name server was developed in 1983 at the University of Wisconsin, allowing users to access systems without having to know the exact path to the server. 1983 also saw the transition from NCP to TCP/IP, and it was at this same time that ARPANET was split into ARPANET and MILNET. 68 of the current 113 existing nodes were assigned to MILNET. It was also in 1983 that a San Francisco programmer, Tom Jennings wrote the first FidoNet Bulletin Board System, which was capable of allowing both email and message passing over the Internet between networked BBSs by 1988. In 1984, the number of hosts on the Internet broke 1000, and DNS (Domain Name Services) was introduced. Moderated newsgroups also made their first appearance this year, although it would be almost a year and a half before NNTP (Network New Transfer Protocol) would be introduced. In 1985, the WELL (Whole Earth 'Lectronic Link) was launched out of Sausalito California, allowing San Francisco Bay Area users free access to the Internet. The Internet had grown so fast, and to such large proportions by this time that some control was needed to oversee its expansion, so in 1986, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) came into existence under the IAB. 1988 S aw the advent of IRC (Internet Relay Chat), developed by Jarkko Oikarinen, and it can be safely assumed that the first Hot Chat took place very shortly afterwards. By 1989 the number of Internet hosts

Saturday, March 7, 2020

How a practitioner’s values and beliefs influence their practice The WritePass Journal

How a practitioner’s values and beliefs influence their practice social work, extra-care establishment, Introduction How a practitioner’s values and beliefs influence their practice social work, extra-care establishment, IntroductionBIBLIOGRAPHYRelated social work, extra-care establishment, Introduction Within this written work, the writer will describe three examples using their own experiences in working within a health and social care practice. It will also reflect upon those personal ensure confidentiality and anonymity of service users and employer will be maintained throughout, service users and employers will be referred to as initials. The writer will also refer to academic research, further reading and theories on reflective practice and values and ethics of professional practice. Edgar Schon, an influential writer on reflection, described reflection in two main ways: reflection in action and reflection onaction. Reflectionon action is looking back after the event whilst reflection in action is happening during the event. Reflection in action is defined as: â€Å"To think about what one is doing whilst one is doing it; it is typically stimulated by surprise, by something which puzzled the practitioner concerned† (Greenwood, 1993). Reflection in action allows the practitioner to redesign what he/ she is doing whilst he/she is doing it. This is commonly associated with experienced practitioners. However, it is much neglected. Reflection on action is defined as: â€Å"The retrospective contemplation of practice undertaken in order to uncover the knowledge used in practical situations, by analysing and interpreting the information recalled† (Fitzgerald, 1994:67) Alternatively Boyd Fales suggest reflection on action is: â€Å"The process of creating and clarifying the meanings of experiences in terms of self in relation to both self and world. The outcome of this process is changed conceptual perspectives† (Boyd Fales, 1983:101) Boyd and Fales focus more on self-development. Here refection does not only add to our knowledge but challenges the concepts and theories we hold. As a result we don’t see more, we see differently. Atkins and Murphy (1994) take this idea one step further and suggest that for reflection to make a real difference to practice we follow this with a commitment toaction as a result. Using Borton’s (1970) framework for reflection; while working in an Extra-Care establishment, service user A, a Jewish man, partially sighted and almost deaf, was given a meal of bacon, tomato and pork sausage. Being Jewish, according to Hawker and Campbell (2009) should have been kosher meat, service user A should not have been served that meal. Upon reflection, service user ‘A’ should have been given a choice of what to have for lunch, which he had not as he would not have chosen pork. He should also, being partially sighted, been shown what was on his plate. Moore (2000) states individuals suffering from visual impairments may require assistance in orientating themselves; carers could have accomplished this by the time method, i.e. your potatoes are at three o’clock. According to Nzira (2009) this could be seen as oppressive practice- and trivialising his religious faith. The lack of choice in daily living activities, disempower service users and take away their dignity and independence. Thompson (2009) denotes; out-dated approaches to disability disempower individuals with impairment; which Harris and Meridith (2005) proposes that each individual is vulnerable from having little or no control over their lives. Brisenden (1986) theorises; to deny them of facets of control over their personal lives, they become excluded by isolation, thus suffering from marginalisation and dehumanisation-at an individual level through bigotry and misapplied pity. Britain is now multi-cultural through social acceptance and the promotion of diversity. In relation to service user A, implementation of anti-oppressive practice, would maintain a power balance between service user and practitioner. Thompson (1997:32) defines oppressive practice as degrading treatment of a person or people; the negative exercise of power which can involve disregarding the individual or group’s rights- thus a denial of citizenship. This instance has, through my reflection on action, improved my practice. Within my work I have implemented new strategies to work with and informed several service users of entitlement and what their rights were and what aids or tools were available to support them and promote their independence. But, I had little knowledge of the Jewish faith and felt unable to speak about it until I had more knowledge. My reflection in action advised me that I must take steps to prevent this situation occurring again. After looking at policies and procedures in place, which advised to take this issue first to my line manager in private and made her aware I was going to raise the issue in the next team meeting to hopefully reach a collective solution and also gather staff names to attend training days on this issue. A gentleman with progressive dementia, who attended the day opportunities/ lunch club, was sat on his own at a table. This service user cannot walk without support and I was aware he was supported into dining room.. After lunch he was supported to the lounge and taken to an armchair, away from other service users who were playing dominoes on one side of the room.   Excluded from the other service users, no offer of participation with other’s and unable to express wishes fully, this gentleman had little, if any, interaction with the group in the time he was there. Arber and Ginn (1995) propose this would be undervaluing and disregarding older people, dismissing their involvement in society and their wishes and presenting them as a problem or irritation. The exclusion of this gentleman was not only accepted by staff but also by the group. Thompson (2009) enthuses; â€Å"Day centres can be utilised to reduce an individual’s social isolation and the associated problems that go with it [] Monitoring someone who has complex needs; developing skills, social and life skills; communication skills, and so on †Ã‚   (Thompson; 2009) I initially pre-judged the group, both carers and service users. I precluded that the culture of this small group of people over time had developed negative values and beliefs, and ethics. It appeared there was a non-acceptance of any diversity in others. Open discrimination and oppression which I perceived had been accepted as the norm.   However; on reflection, Social work is about working with people to resolve their difficulties as far as possible, and doing things to or for people should only happen when necessary. Thompson (2009) enthuses; An significant portion of empowerment is partnership, which; (i) involves not assuming a top down approach presuming the expert knows best (ii) working within a multidisciplinary complex system [] identifying that whilst social workers   have an vital role to play, so do further professionals we work along with. Upon meeting service user B for the first time; a lady who had suffered a stroke which left her paralysed down her right side and unable to form words in speech. This led to communication issues with not only care and medical staff but even her family found great difficulty in understanding and conversing with her. Sife, W (1998) theorises, attitudes to persons with a speech dysfunction set aphasia apart as an impairment which dehumanizes and isolates the person This together with the prevalent opinion of the aged as second class citizens- conveys a demeaning insignificant status to the older aphasic patient. Giving this lady a letter-board to point to individual letters to communicate hasgiven a liberation of thought. This has led to confidence building in service user B thus realization of her potential through the process of further re-ablement, enhancements and the promotion of independence. In conclusion, being a reflective practitioner, it is essential to be honest with yourself and others. It is not, however, always a comfortable process. Eby (2000a) defines reflection as enabling practitioners to make sense of their lived experiences through examining such experiences in context. Reflection is thinking about our actions. Initially, it is a conversation with ourselves. BIBLIOGRAPHY Moore, D. (2000) Substance Use Disorder Treatment for People with Physical and Cognitive Disabilities: Treatment Improvement Protocol. DIANE Publishing, Hawker, F and Campbell, B.(2009) Judaism in Israel. London. Evans. Harris, N and Meridith, P (2005) Children, education, and health: international perspectives on law and policy .Hampshire. Ashgate. 10:201 Sife, W. (1998) After stroke: Enhancing quality of life. London. Routledge, 7:85 Thompson, N. and Thompson, S.(2005) The Social Work Companion. Palgrave.Macmillan.

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Human Resource Management of eBay in China Essay

Human Resource Management of eBay in China - Essay Example eBay’s failure in China is attributable to its rigid and product-centered approach that did not complement consumer behavior in China. Cultural differences, unique characteristics of Chinese consumers and hence their demands from e-shopping differ vastly from that of American buyers. This problem identification requires the development of appropriate solutions to help eBay tackle the threat of dominant competition in China that is being posed by Taobao. A success in doing so would allow eBay to capture the booming e-shopping market in China which is expected to grow to an astounding $315 billion dollars by 2015 and therefore, presents a monumental opportunity for eBay to move forward with its plans of global expansion. The report proposes an incorporation of the expertise of local managers and workers in the operations of eBay China to remove issues that are being posed by cultural barriers. It should also be noted that this Human Resource Management initiative will also help in cost reduction and minimization. Diversity in a workforce is integral to idea generation and would also help redesign eBay’s business model to suit to the needs of the Chinese C2C market. Drawbacks of the proposed solution are also discussed and it is recommended that further reports are commissioned to assess the validity of the said drawbacks and how they should be minimized. Contents 1.Terms of Reference 3 2.Literature Review 5 3.Problem Identification 7 3.1 Background 7 3.2 Competition from Taobao 9 3.3 Cultural Issues 10 3.4 Unique Characteristics of Buyers 10 3.5 eBay’s Business Model 11 4.Evaluation of Alternatives 11 4.1Employing Local Managers 11 4.2Transferring Core Employees with Chinese Background 13 5.Recommendations 14 6.Reflective Appendix 15 References 17 1. Terms of Reference eBay is a global internet-based business that acts as an intermediary between consumer-to-consumer transactions for a wide range of products that include electronics, automobil es, clothing, sporting gear and several other products falling under various categories. eBay entered the Chinese market in 2003 through its acquisition of EachNet (Zhang et al. 2009) with hopes of gaining a considerable market share and to repeat the success that it had achieved in the U.S. However, as industry analysts would later report eBay failed to compete with the dominant force of Taobao – a local website that was launched by Alibaba in hopes of battling the imminent threat that eBay posed to sellers in China’s booming internet shopping market. While, commentators and analysts have evidently explained the reasons why eBay eventually could not make a significant impact on the online shopping market in China, it is important to note that much of that discussion has been directed towards assessing comparative analyses between the business models of eBay and its adversary Taobao. The purpose of this report however, is to focus specifically on the Human Resource Man agement of eBay in China in order to utilize the evaluations derived from the assessment to propose recommendations and suggestions that could be undertaken by the multinational corporation. The report aims to do so by defining the problems and issues that eBay faced in the Chinese market which posed as obstacles in allowing the organization to capture a considerable market share within the industry in the face of tough competition. These main issues include exploring